People and ecosystems

Understanding of the links between coral reef ecosystems, the goods and services they provide to people, and the wellbeing of human societies.


Ecosystem dynamics: past, present and future

Examining the multi-scale dynamics of reefs, from population dynamics to macroevolution


Responding to a changing world

Advancing the fundamental understanding of the key processes underpinning reef resilience.

Coral Bleaching

Coral Bleaching

Coral Reef Studies

ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies
James Cook University Townsville
Queensland 4811 Australia

Phone: 61 7 4781 4000
Email: info@coralcoe.org.au

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Graeme S. Cumming

Graeme S. Cumming

Professor and Coral Reef Research Leader

BSc (Hons) Rhodes • DPhil (Oxon)

James Cook University

+61 (0)7 4781 6072



Graeme grew up (well, mostly) in Harare, Zimbabwe, where he went to Saint George’s College. He studied Zoology and Entomology to the honours level at Rhodes University in Grahamstown, South Africa. He then moved to Oxford University, U.K., on a Rhodes Scholarship. While at New College, Oxford, Graeme completed his doctorate on ‘The Evolutionary Ecology of African Ticks’ under the supervision of Drs. Sarah Randolph and David Rogers. From Oxford he moved to the University of Wisconsin-Madison, funded by a D. H. Smith Postdoctoral Fellowship from The Nature Conservancy (TNC). In Madison he worked with TNC and Professor Steve Carpenter at the Center for Limnology on applying species-based models to management and conservation-related problems in freshwater systems. After two years as a postdoc, he was hired as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation at the University of Florida. Graeme returned to Africa at the end of 2005 and occupied the Pola Pasvolsky Chair in Conservation Biology at the University of Cape Town until end June 2015, when he moved to his current position.

Research Interests

Graeme has a wide range of interests, centering around understanding spatial aspects of ecology and the relevance of broad-scale pattern-process dynamics for ecosystem (and social-ecological system) function and resilience. He is also interested in the applications of landscape ecology and complexity theory to conservation and the sustainable management of natural resources.

Graeme is currently developing a new project theme on spatial resilience and scale in coral reef-associated social-ecological systems while (1) writing up data and results from field research on southern African waterbirds and their parasites; (2) continuing an NRF-funded project on organism-focused models of ecosystem service provision; and (3) continuing a James S. McDonnell Foundation-funded program on the importance of spatial variation and network membership for the social-ecological resilience of protected areas.



Hayley Clements: The economic sustainability of private protected areas. (Supervisor: Graeme Cumming). [thesis submitted!]

Karmen Luzar: Understanding stakeholder values in conservation management networks in relation to MPA management. (Supervisor: Graeme Cumming).

Marie Lapointe: Tradeoffs in ecosystem services

Sivee Chawla: Understanding social-ecological relations in urbanising landscapes

co-advised: Jessica Spijkers (Osterblom/Morrison), Robert Streit (Bellwood).


M.Sc. Students:
Advisor: Heidi Richter (2004), Brian Spiesman (2006), Ann George (2006), Lindy MacGregor (2007), Matt Child (2008), Glynis Humphrey (2008), Simon Dures (2009), Ben Heermans (2010), Allison Skidmore (2010), Gregory Mutumi (2011), Jeremy Goss (2012), Christine Moore (2012), Zanne Labuschagne (2014), John Heydinger (2014), Jordan-Laine Calder (2014), Jenna Bowker (2015), Marcela Espinaze (2015).

Co-advisor: Matthew Bokach (2004), Cerian Gibbes (2004), Rebecca Hylton (2004), Melissa Moyer (2004), Claudia Stickler (2003), Cedric Worman (2004), Hannah Thomas (2007), Tsholofelo Dithlobolo (2009).

PhD Students:
Advisor: Grant Joseph (2012), Mduduzi Ndlovu (2012), Sharon Okanga (2013), Dominic Henry (2016), Chevonne Reynolds (2016), Julia Baum (2016)
Co-advisor: Lin Cassidy (2007), Matt Marsik (2008), Arpat Ozgul (2005), Jim Surdick (2005)

Advisor: Leo Bruinzeel (2007-8), Xanic Rondon (2009-10), Felix Nchu (2010-11), Alta de Vos (2013-14), Kristine Maciejewski (2013-14), Eleonore Hellard (2014-2015).

Publications at JCU online


You can find pdfs for most of my publications on Research Gate. My ISI citation data are here and my Google Scholar profile here.

2017/in press

Cumming, G. S., and Maciejewski, K. (in press). Reconciling community ecology and ecosystem services: cultural services and benefits from birds in South African National Parks. Ecosystem Services.

Reynolds, C., Cumming, G.S., Vilà, M., and Green, A.J. (in press). Birds as key vectors for the dispersal of some alien species – further thoughts. Diversity and Distributions.

Suri, J., Anderson, P.M., Charles-Dominique, T., Hellard, E., and Cumming, G. S. (2017). More than just a corridor: a suburban river catchment enhances bird functional diversity. Landscape and Urban Planning 157: 331-342.


Abolnik, C., Olivier, A., Reynolds, C., Henry, D. A. W., Cumming, G.S., Rauff, D., Romito, M., Petty, D., and Falch, C. (2016). Susceptibility and status of avian influenza in ostriches. Avian Diseases 60, 1s: 286-295.

Allen, C.R., Angeler, D.G., Cumming, G.S., Folke, C., Twidwell, D., and Uden, D.R. (2016). Quantifying Spatial Resilience. Journal of Applied Ecology.

Ament, J.M., and Cumming, G.S. (2016). Effectiveness, isolation, and social-ecological spillover of protected areas: understanding drivers and scale dependencies. Conservation Biology.

Ament, J.M., Moore, C., Herbst, M., and Cumming, G.S. (2016). Cultural ecosystem services in protected areas: understanding bundles, trade-offs and synergies. Conservation Letters.

Bowker, J., De Vos, A., Ament, J.M., and Cumming, G.S. (2016). Satellite aerial imagery indicates mixed effectiveness of Africa’s tropical protected areas for maintaining forest cover. Conservation Biology.

Clements, H.S., Baum, J., and Cumming, G.S. (2016). Money and motives: an organizational ecology perspective on private land conservation. Biological Conservation 197: 108-115.

Clements, H.S., and Cumming, G.S. (2016). Positives and pathologies of natural resource management on private land conservation areas. Conservation Biology.

Clements, H.S., Cumming, G.S., and Kerley, G.I.H. (2016). Predators on private land: broad-scale socioeconomic interactions influence large predator management. Ecology and Society 21(2).

Congrains, C., Carvalho, A., Miranda, E., Cumming, G.S., Henry, D.A.W., Manu, S., Abalaka, J., Rocha, C., Diop, M., Sá, J., Monteiro, H., Holbech, L., Gbogbo, F., and Del Lama, S. (2016). Genetic and paleomodelling evidence of the population expansion of the Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis in Africa during the climatic oscillations of the Late Pleistocene. Journal of Avian Biology.

Costello, M.J., Beard, K.H., Corlett, R.T., Cumming, G.S., Devictor, V., Loyola, R., Maas, B., Miller-Rushing, A.J., Pakeman, R., and Primack, R.B. (2016). Field work ethics in biological research. Biological Conservation 203: 268-271.

Cumming, G.S. (2016). The relevance and resilience of protected areas in the Anthropocene. Anthropocene 13: 46-56.

Cumming, G.S. (2016). Heterarchies: reconciling networks and hierarchies. Trends in Ecology and Evolution (TREE) 31: 622-632.

Cumming, G.S., Harebottle, D.M., Mundava, J., Otieno, N., and Tyler, S.J. (2016). Timing and location of reproduction in African waterfowl: overview of >100 years of nest card records. Ecology & Evolution.

Cumming, G.S., Morrison, T., and Hughes, T.P. (2016). New directions for understanding the spatial resilience of social-ecological systems. Ecosystems.

De Vos, A., Cumming, G.S., Maciejewski, K., Moore, C., and Duckworth, G. (2016). Understanding the role of spatial variation in ecotourism attributes for the economic sustainability of protected areas. Ecosphere 7(2).

De Vos, A., Cumming, G.S., Cumming, D.H.M., Ament, J.M., Baum, J., Clements, H.S., Grewar, J., Maciejewski, K., and Moore, C. (2016). Pathogens, disease, and the social-ecological resilience of protected areas. Ecology and Society 21(1):20. http://dx.doi.org/10.5751/ES-07984-21012

Hellard, E., Cumming, G.S., Caron, A., Coe, E., and Peters, J. (2016). Testing epidemiological functional groups as predictors of avian haemosporidia patterns in southern Africa. Ecosphere 7(4):e01225. (17pp.) Doi: 10.1002/ecs2.1225

Henry, D.A.W., Ament, J.M., and Cumming, G.S. (2016). Exploring the environmental drivers of waterfowl movement in arid landscapes using first-passage time analysis. Movement Ecology 4:8 Doi: 10.1186/s40462-016-0073-x.

Henry, D.A.W., and Cumming, G.S. (2016). Spatial and environmental processes show temporal variation in the structuring of waterbird metacommunities. Ecosphere 7(10).

Henry, D.A.W., and Cumming, G.S. (2016). Can waterbirds with different movement, dietary and foraging functional traits occupy similar ecological niches? Landscape Ecology.

Maciejewski, K., Baum, J., and Cumming, G.S. (2016). Integration of private land conservation areas in a network of statutory protected areas: implications for sustainability. Biological Conservation 200: 200-206.

Nelson, J.T., Wilson, R.E., McCracken, K.G., Cumming, G.S., Joseph, L., Guay, P-J, and Peters, J. L. (2016). Divergence and gene flow in the globally distributed blue-winged ducks. Journal of Avian Biology.

Reynolds, C. and Cumming, G.S. (2016). Seed traits and bird species influence the dispersal parameters of wetland plants. Freshwater Biology 61:1157-1170.

Reynolds, C., and Cumming, G.S. (2016). Seed dispersal by waterbirds in southern Africa: comparing the roles of ectozoochory and endozoochory. Freshwater Biology 69: 349-361.

Seppelt, R., and Cumming, G. S. (2016). Humanity’s distance to nature: time for environmental austerity? Landscape Ecology 31: 1645-1651.

Seymour, C.L., Joseph, G.S., Makumbe, M., Cumming, G.S., Mahlangu, Z., and Cumming, D. H. M. (2016). Woody species composition in an African savanna: determined by centuries of termite activity but modulated by 50 years of ungulate herbivory. Journal of Vegetation Science 27: 824-833. Doi: 10.1111/jvs.12393


Calder, J-L., Cumming, G.S., Maciejewski, K., and Oschadleus, H. D. (2015). The influence of urban land use on weaver bird movements between wetlands in Cape Town, South Africa. Biological Conservation 187: 230-239.

Caron, A., Cappelle, J., Cumming, G.S., de Garine-Wichatitsky, M., and Gaidet, N. (2015). Bridge hosts, a missing link for disease ecology in multi-host systems. Veterinary Research 46:83.

Cumming, D.H.M. and Cumming, G.S. (2015). One health – an ecological and conservation perspective. Pp. 38-52 In: One Health: the theory and practice of integrated health approaches. Zinsstag, J., Schelling, E., Waltner-Toews, D., Whittaker, M., and Tanner, M. CABI International, Wallingford, U.K. ISBN-13: 9781780643410.

Cumming, G.S., Abolnik, C., Caron, A., Gaidet, N., Grewar, J., Hellard, E., Henry, D.A.W., and Reynolds, C. (2015). A social-ecological approach to landscape epidemiology: geographic variation and avian influenza. Landscape Ecology 30: 963-985.

Cumming, G.S., Allen, C.R., Ban, N.C., Biggs, D., Biggs, H.C., Cumming, D.H.M., De Vos, A., Epstein, G., Etienne, M., Maciejewski, K., Mathevet, R., Moore, C., Nenadovic, M., and Schoon, M. (2015). Understanding protected area resilience: a multi-scale, social-ecological approach. Ecological Applications 25: 299-319.

Espinaze, M.P., Hellard, E., Horak, I., and Cumming, G. S. (2015). Analysis of large new South African data set using two host specificity indices shows generalism in both adult and larval ticks of mammals. Parasitology. doi:10.1017/S0031182015001730

Joseph, G.S., Makumbe, M., Seymour, C.L., Cumming, G. S., Mahlangu, Z., and Cumming, D.H.M. (2015). Termite mounds mitigate against 50 years of herbivore-induced reduction of functional diversity of savanna woody plants. Landscape Ecology 30(10).

Maciejewski, K., and Cumming, G.S. (2015). Multi-scale network analysis shows scale-dependency of significance of individual protected areas for connectivity. Landscape Ecology.

Maciejewski, K., and Cumming, G.S. (2015). The relevance of socioeconomic interactions for the resilience of protected areas. Ecosphere 6(9): 145

Maciejewski, K., De Vos, A., Cumming, G.S., Moore, C., and Biggs, D. (2015). Cross-scale feedbacks and scale mismatches as influences on cultural services and the resilience of protected areas. Ecological Applications 25: 11-23.

Moore, C., Cumming, G.S., and Grewar, J. (2015). Quantifying network resilience: comparison before and after a major perturbation shows strengths and limitations of network metrics. Journal of Applied Ecology. doi: 10.1111/1365-2664.12486

Palmer, C. G., Biggs, R., and Cumming, G.S. (2015). Applied research for enhancing human well-being and environmental stewardship: using complexity thinking in Southern Africa. Ecology and Society 20: 53. [online] URL: http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol20/iss1/art53/.

Reynolds, C., and Cumming, G.S. (2015). The role of waterbirds in the dispersal of freshwater cladocera and bryozoa in southern Africa. African Zoology 50: 307-311.

Reynolds, C., and Cumming, G.S. (2015). Defining functional groups using dietary data: quantitative comparison suggests functional classification for seed-dispersing waterfowl. Basic and Applied Ecology. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.baae.2015.12.006

Reynolds, C., Miranda, N., and Cumming, G.S. (2015). The role of waterbirds in the dispersal of aquatic alien and invasive species. Diversity and Distributions.

Thomas, H.L., Hockey, P.A.R., and Cumming, G. S. (2015). Solving the challenges of monitoring mobile populations: insights from studies of waterbirds in southern Africa. Ostrich 86: 169-178.


Cappelle, J., Caron, A., De Almeida, R.S. Gil, P., Pedrono, M., Mundava, J., Fofana, B., Balança, G., Dakouo, M., Ould El Mamy, A.B., Abolnik, C., Maminiaina, O.F., Cumming, G.S., De Visscher, M-N., Albina, E., Chevalier, V. and Gaidet, N. (2014). Empirical analysis suggests continuous and homogeneous circulation of Newcastle Disease virus in a wide range of wild bird species in Africa. Epidemiology and Infection 143(6):1292-1303.

Cumming, G.S. (2014). Theoretical frameworks for the analysis of social-ecological systems. In: Sakai, S., and Umetsu, C. (eds). Social-Ecological Systems in Transition. Springer, Tokyo. 198pp. ISBN 978-4-431-54909-3.

Cumming, G.S., Buerkert, A., Hoffman, E.M., Schlecht, E., von Cramon-Taubadel, S. and Tscharntke, T. 2014. Implications of agricultural transitions and urbanization for ecosystem services. Nature 515:50-57.

Joseph, G., Seymour, C., Cumming, G.S., Cumming, D.H.M. and Mahlangu, Z. (2014). Termite mounds increase functional diversity of woody plants in African savannas. Ecosystems 17: 808-819. doi: 10.1007/s10021-014-9761-9.

Moore, C., Cumming, G.S., Slingsby, J. and Grewar, J. (2014). Tracking socioeconomic vulnerability using network analysis: Insights from an avian influenza outbreak in an ostrich production network. PLoS ONE 9(1): e86973. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0086973.

Okanga, S., Cumming, G.S., Hockey, P.A.R., Nupen, L. and Peters, J.L. (2014). Host specificity and co-speciation in avian haemosporidia in the Western Cape, South Africa. PLoS ONE9(2): e86382. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.008638289

Seymour, C., Milewski, A.V., Mills, A.J., Joseph, G.S., Cumming, G.S., Cumming, D.H.M. and Mahlangu, Z. (2014).  Do the large termite mounds of Macrotermes concentrate both micro- and macronutrients in nutrient-poor African savannas? Soil Biology and Biochemistry 68: 95-105.


Cumming, G.S. (2013). Scale mismatches and reflexive law. Ecology and Society 18:article 15.  [URL: http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol18/iss1/art15/]

Cumming, G.S., Ndlovu, M., Mutumi, G.L. and Hockey, P.A.R. (2013). Responses of an African wading bird community to resource pulses are related to foraging guild and food-web position. Freshwater Biology 58:79–87.

Cumming, G.S., Shepard, E., Okanga, S., Caron, A., Ndlovu, M. and Peters, J.L. (2013). Host associations, biogeography, and phylogenetics of avian malaria in southern African waterfowl. Parasitology 140:193 – 201 (doi:10.1017/S0031182012001461)

Glicksman, R. and Cumming, G.S. (2013). Landscape Level Management of Parks, Refuges, and Preserves for Ecosystem Resilience. Chapter 3, pp. 63-97, in: A. S. Garmestani and C. R. Allen (eds). Resilience and Law. Columbia University Press. ISBN-10: 0231160585

Goss, J.R. and Cumming, G.S. (2013). Networks of wildlife translocations in developing countries: an emerging conservation issue? Frontiers in Ecology & Environment.

Joseph, G.S., Seymour, C., Cumming, G.S., Cumming, D.H.M. and Mahlangu, Z. (2013). Termite mounds as islands: woody plant assemblages relative to termitarium size and soil properties. Journal of Vegetation Science 24: 702-711.

Joseph, G.S., Seymour, C., Cumming, G.S., Mahlangu, Z. and Cumming, D.H M. (2013). Escaping the flames: large termitaria as refugia from fire in miombo woodland. Landscape Ecology 28:1505–1516. (doi:10.1007/s10980-013-9897-6)

Ndlovu, M., Cumming, G.S., Hockey, P.A.R., Nkosi, M.D. and Mutumi, G.L. (2013). A study of moult-site fidelity of Egyptian Geese Alopochen aegyptiaca in South Africa. African Zoology 48: 240-249.

Ndlovu, M., Cumming, G.S. and Hockey, P.A.R. (2013). Influence of moult and location on daily movement patterns of Egyptian Geese in Southern Africa. Emu 114: 23-29 .
[URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/MU12108]

Okanga, S., Cumming, G.S. and Hockey, P.A.R. (2013).  Avian malaria prevalence and mosquito abundance in the Western Cape, South Africa. Malaria Journal 12:370.

Okanga, S., Cumming, G.S., Hockey, P.A.R., Peters, J.L. and Grome, M. (2013). A comparison of techniques employed in detection of avian malaria infection, South Africa. African Zoology 48:319-317.

Okanga, S., Cumming, G.S., Hockey, P.A.R. and Peters, J.L. (2013).  Landscape structure influences avian malaria ecology in the Western Cape, South Africa.  Landscape Ecology 28: 2019-2028.

Reyers, B., Biggs, R., Cumming, G.S., Elmqvist, T., Heynowicz, A.P. and Polasky, S. (2013). Getting the measure of ecosystem services: a social-ecological approach. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 11: 268-273.

Sirami, C., Jacobs, D. and Cumming, G.S. (2013). Artificial wetlands and surrounding habitats provide important foraging habitat for bats in agricultural landscapes in the Western Cape, South Africa. Biological Conservation 164:30-38.


Berkes, F., Doubleday, N. and Cumming, G S. (2012). Aldo Leopold’s land health and resilience: self-renewal in social-ecological systems. EcoHealth 9:278-279.

Caron, A., De Garine Witchatisky, M., Ndlovu, M. and Cumming, G.S. (2012). Linking avian communities and avian influenza ecology in southern Africa using epidemiological functional groups. Veterinary Research 43:73

Cumming, G.S. and Cornélis, D. (2012). Quantitative comparison and selection of home range metrics for telemetry data. Diversity and Distributions 18: 1057-1065.

Cumming, G.S., Gaidet, N. and Ndlovu, M. (2012). Towards a unification of movement ecology and biogeography: conceptual framework and a case study on Afrotropical ducks. Journal of Biogeography 39:1401-1411.

Cumming, G.S., Ndlovu, M., Mutumi, G.L. and Hockey, P.A.R. (2012). Responses of an African wading bird community to resource pulses are related to foraging guild and food-web position. Freshwater Biology 58:79–87.

Cumming, G.S., Olsson, P., Chapin III, F.S. and Holling, C.S. (2012). Resilience, experimentation, and scale mismatches in social-ecological landscapes. Landscape Ecology(doi:10.1007/s10980-012-9725-4).

Cumming, G.S., Paxton, M., King, J. and Beuster, H. (2012). Foraging guild membership explains variation in waterbird responses to the hydrological regime of an arid-region flood-pulse river in Namibia. Freshwater Biology 57:1202-1213.

Cumming, G.S., Shepard, E., Okanga, S., Caron, A., Ndlovu, M. and Peters, J.L. (2012). Host associations, biogeography, and phylogenetics of avian malaria in southern African waterfowl. Parasitology 140: 193-201 (doi:10.1017/S0031182012001461).

Cumming, G.S., Southworth, J., Rondon, X.J. and Marsik, M. (2012). Spatial complexity in fragmenting Amazonian Rainforests: do feedbacks from edge effects push forests towards an ecological threshold? Ecological Complexity 11:67-74.

Cundill, G., Cumming, G.S., Biggs, D. and Fabricius, C. (2012). Soft systems thinking and social learning for adaptive management. Conservation Biology 26:13-20.

Gaidet, N., Caron, A., Cappelle, J., Cumming, G.S., Balança, G., Hammoumi, S., Cattoli, G., Abolnik, C., Servan de Almeida, R., Gil, P., Fereidouni, S.R., Grosbois, V., Tran, A., Mundava, J., Fofana, B., Ould Elmamy, B., Ndlovu, M., Mondain-Monval, J.Y., Triplet, P., Hagemeijer, W., Karesh, W.B., Newman, S.H. and Dodman, T. (2012). Understanding the ecological drivers of avian influenza virus infection in wildfowl: a continental scale study across Africa. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 279: 1131-1141.

Gaidet, N., Ould El Mamy, A.B., Cappelle, J., Caron, A., Cumming, G.S., Grosbois, V., Gil, P., Hammoumi, S., de Almeida, R.S., Fereidouni, S.R., Cattoli, G., Abolnik, C., Mundava, J., Fofana, B., Ndlovu, M., Diawara, Y., Hurtado, R., Newman, S.H., Dodman, T. and Balança, G. (2012). Investigating Avian Influenza Infection Hotspots in Old-world Shorebirds. PLoS ONE7(9): e46049. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0046049.

Joseph, G.S., Seymour, C., Cumming, G.S., Cumming, D.H.M. and Mahlangu, Z. (2012).  Termite mounds as islands: woody plant assemblages relative to termitarium size and soil properties. Journal of Vegetation Science. Doi: 10.1111/j.1654-1103.2012.01489.x

Rondon, X.J., Cumming, G.S., Cossio, R. and Southworth, J. (2012). The effects of selective logging behaviors on forest fragmentation and recovery. International Journal of Forestry Research, Article ID 179074, 10pp. doi:10.1155/2012/170974
[URL: http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijfr/2012/170974/]


Allen, C.R., Cumming, G.S., Garmestani, A.J., Taylor, P. and Walker, B. (2011). Implementing the resilience approach for wildlife management. Wildlife Biology 17:337-349.

Caron, A., Abolnik, C., Mundava, J., Gaidet, N., Burger, C.E., Mochotlhoane, B., Bruinzeel, L.W., Chiweshe, N. and Cumming, G.S. (2011). Persistence of low pathogenic avian influenza virus in waterfowl in a southern African ecosystem. EcoHealth 8:109-115. (DOI: 10.1007/s10393-010-0356-4).

Collier, J. & Cumming, G.S.  (2011). A dynamical approach to ecosystem identity. pp. 201-218 In: Brown, B., de Laplante, K., and Peacock, K. (eds). Philosophy of Ecology Handbook. Volume 11 in the Handbook of the Philosophy of Science. Elsevier, 444 pp.

Cumming, G.S. (2011). Spatial Resilience in Social-Ecological Systems. Springer, 254pp. ISBN: 978-94-007-0306-3 [URL: http://www.springer.com/life+sciences/ecology/book/978-94-007-0306-3].

Cumming, G.S. (2011). The resilience of big river basins. Water International 36:17-49.

Cumming, G.S. (2011). Spatial Resilience: integrating landscape ecology, resilience, and sustainability. Landscape Ecology 26:899-909.

Cumming, G.S.., Caron, A., Abolnik, C., Cattoli, G., Bruinzeel, L.W., Burger, C.E., Cecchettin, K., Chiweshe, N., Mochotlhoane, B., Mutumi, G.L. and Ndlovu, M. (2011). The ecology of Influenza A viruses in wild birds in southern Africa. Ecohealth 8:4-13.

Cumming, G.S. & Ndlovu, M. (2011). Satellite telemetry of Afrotropical ducks: methodological details and assessment of success rates. African Zoology 46:425–434.

Joseph, G.S., Cumming, G.S., Cumming, D.H.M., Mahlangu, Z., Altwegg, R. and Seymour, C. L. (2011). Large termitaria act as refugia for tall trees, deadwood and cavity-using birds in a miombo woodland. Landscape Ecology 26: 439-448. (DOI: 10.1007/s10980-011-9572-8).

MacGregor, L. H., Cumming, G.S.. & Hockey, P.A.R. (2011). Understanding pathogen transmission dynamics in waterbird communities: at what scale should interactions be studied? South African Journal of Science 107:56-65.

Southworth, J., Marsik, M., Qiu, Y., Perz, S., Cumming, G.S., Stevens, F., Rocha, K., Duchelle, A. and Barnes, G. (2011). Roads as drivers of change: Trajectories across the Tri-National Frontier in MAP, the Southwestern Amazon. Remote Sensing 3: 1047-1066. (DOI: 10.3390/rs3051047).


Abolnik, C., Gerdes, G.H., Sinclair, M., Ganzevoort, B.W., Kitching, J.P., Burger, C.E., Romito, M., Dreyer, M., Swanepoel, S., Cumming, G.S. and Olivier, A.J. (2010). Phylogenetic analysis of influenza A viruses (H6N8, H1N8, H4N2, H9N2, H10N7) isolated from wild birds, ducks and ostriches in South Africa from 2007 to 2009. Avian Diseases 54: 313-322.

Caron, A., De Garine-Wichatitsky, M. Gaidet, N., Chiweshe, N. and Cumming, G.S. (2010). Estimating dynamic risk factors for pathogen transmission using community-level bird census data at the wildlife/domestic interface. Ecology and Society 15(3): 25.
[URL: http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol15/iss3/art25/]

Cumming, G.S. (2010). Risk mapping for avian influenza: a social-ecological problem. Ecology and Society 15(3): 32. [URL: http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol15/iss3/art32/]

Cumming, G.S., Bodin, O., Ernstson, H. and Elmqvist, T. (2010). Network analysis in conservation biogeography: challenges and opportunities. Diversity and Distributions 16: 414-425.

Dures, S.G. & Cumming, G.S.. (2010). The confounding influence of homogenising invasive species in a globally endangered and largely urban biome: does habitat quality dominate avian biodiversity? Biological Conservation 143:768-777.

Ndlovu, M., Cumming, G.S., Hockey, P.A.R. and Bruinzeel, L. (2010). Phenotypic flexibility of a Southern African duck during moult: do northern hemisphere paradigms apply? Journal of Avian Biology 41: 558-564.

Peres-Neto, P. and Cumming, G.S. (2010). A Multi-Scale Framework for the Analysis of Fish Metacommunities. In: Gido, K. and Jackson, D. Community Ecology of Stream Fishes: Concepts, Approaches, and Techniques. American Fisheries Society. 664pp.

Robertson, M.P., Cumming, G.S. and Erasmus, B. (2010). Getting the most out of Atlas data. Diversity and Distributions 16: 363-375.

Seymour, C.L, Milton, S.J., Joseph, G.S., Dean, W.R.J., Ditlhobolo, T. and Cumming, G.S.(2010). Twenty years of rest returns grazing potential, but not diversity of palatable species, to a rangeland in the southern Karoo. Journal of Applied Ecology 47: 859-867.


Child, M.F., Cumming, G.S. and Amano, T. (2009). Assessing the broad-scale impact of agriculturally transformed and protected area landscapes on avian taxonomic and functional richness. Biological Conservation 142: 2593-2601.

Cumming, G.S. (2009). Current themes and recent advances in modelling species occurrences. f1000 Biology Reports 1:94.

Cumming, G.S. and Child, M.F. (2009). Contrasting spatial patterns of taxonomic and functional richness offer insights into potential loss of ecosystem services. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 364: 1683-1692.

Cumming, G.S. and George, A. (2009). Historical influences dominate the composition of regenerating plant communities in abandoned citrus groves in north-central Florida. Landscape Ecology 24: 957-970.

Geselbracht, L., Torres, R., Cumming, G.S., Dorfman, D., Beck, M. and Shaw, D. (2009). Identification of a spatially efficient portfolio of priority conservation sites in marine and estuarine areas of Florida. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 19: 408-420.


Cumming, G.S. and Havlicek, T.D. (2008). Discontinuity, multimodality and the evolution of pattern. In: Allen, C.R., and Holling, C.S. (editors). Discontinuities in ecosystems and other complex systems. Columbia Press, NY. 288pp.

Cumming, G.S., Hockey, P.A.R., Bruinzeel, L.W. and Du Plessis, M.A. (2008). Wild bird movements and avian influenza risk mapping in southern Africa. Ecology and Society 13(2): 26. [online] URL: http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol13/iss2/art26/.

Daniels, A.E. and Cumming, G.S. (2008). conversion or conservation? Understanding wetland change in Northwest Costa Rica. Ecological Applications 18:49-63

Houlahan, J.E., Cottenie, K., Cumming, G.S., Currie, D.J., Findlay, C.S., Gaedke, U., Legendre, P., Magnuson, J.J., McArdle, B.H., Stevens, R.D., Woiwod, I.P. and Wondzell, S.M. (2008). The utility of covariances: a response to Ranta et al. Oikos 117: 1912-1913.

Norberg, J. and Cumming, G.S. (2008). Complexity theory for a sustainable future. Columbia Press, NY. 312pp.

Okes, N.C., Hockey, P.A.R. and Cumming, G.S. (2008). Habitat use and life history as predictors of bird responses to habitat change. Conservation Biology 22:151-162.

Richter, H.V. and Cumming, G.S. (2008). First application of satellite telemetry to track African straw-coloured fruit bat migration. Journal of Zoology 275:172-176.

Spiesman, B.J. and Cumming, G.S. (2008). Communities in context: the influences of multiscale environmental variation on local ant community structure. Landscape Ecology 23:313-325.

2007 and before

Cumming, G.S., and Barnes, G.D. (2007). Characterizing land tenure dynamics by comparing spatial and temporal variation at multiple scales. Landscape and Urban Planning 83: 219-227.

Cumming, G.S. (2007). Global biodiversity scenarios and landscape ecology. Landscape Ecology 22: 671-685.

Houlahan, J.E., Currie, D.J., Cottenie, K., Cumming, G.S., Ernest, S.K.M., Findlay, C.S., Fuhlendorf, S.D., Gaedke, U., Legendre, P., Magnuson, J.J., McArdle, B.H., Muldavin, E.H., Noble, D., Russell, R., Stevens, R.D., Willis, T.J., Woiwod, I.P., and Wondzell, S.M. (2007). Compensatory dynamics are rare in natural ecological communities. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104: 3273-3277.

Cumming, G.S., and Spiesman, B. (2006). Regional problems need integrated solutions: pest management and conservation biology in agroecosystems. Biological Conservation 131: 533-543.

Cumming, G.S., and Guegan, J-F. (2006). Food Webs and Disease: Is Pathogen Diversity Limited By Vector Diversity? EcoHealth 3: 163-170.

Southworth, J., Cumming, G.S., Marsik, M., Binford, M. W. (2006). Linking spatial and temporal variation at multiple scales in a heterogeneous landscape. Professional Geographer 58: 406-420.

Dobson, A., Lodge, D., Alder, J., Cumming, G.S., Keymer, J., Mcglade, J., Mooney, H., Rusak, J.A., Sala, O., Wolters, V., Wall, D., Winfree, R., & Xenopoulos, M.A. (2006). Habitat loss, trophic collapse, and the decline of ecosystem services. Ecology 87(8):1915–1924.

Cumming, G.S., and Van Vuuren, D. (2006). Will climate change affect ectoparasite species ranges? Global Ecology and Biogeography 15: 486-497.

Rodriguez, J.P., Beard, T.D., Bennett, E., Cumming, G.S., Cork, S., Agard, J., Dobson, A., and Peterson, G. (2006). Trade-offs across space, time, and ecosystem services. Ecology and Society 11(1): 28. [online] URL: http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol11/iss1/art28/

Cumming, G.S., D.H.M. Cumming, and C.L. Redman. 2006. Scale mismatches in social-ecological systems: causes, consequences, and solutions. Ecology and Society 11(1): 14. [online] URL: http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vo11/iss1/art14/.

Richter, H.V., and Cumming, G.S. (2006). Food availability and the annual migration of the straw-coloured fruit bat (Eidolon helvum) at Kasanka National Park, Zambia. Journal of Zoology, London 268: 35-44.

Bennett, E.M., Cumming, G.S. and Peterson, G.D. (2005). A systems models approach to determining resilience surrogates for case studies. Ecosystems 8: 945-947.

Cumming, G.S. and Collier, J. (2005). Change and identity in complex systems. Ecology and Society 10:29.

Cumming, G.S., Barnes, G., Perz, S., Schmink, M., Sieving, K., Southworth, J., Binford, M., Holt, R. D., Stickler, C., and Van Holt, T. (2005). An exploratory framework for the empirical measurement of resilience. Ecosystems 8: 975-987.

Cumming, G.S., Alcamo, J., Sala, O., Swart, R., Bennett, E.M, & Zurek, M. (2005). Are existing global scenarios consistent with ecological feedbacks? Ecosystems 8: 143-152.

Cumming, G.S., and Peterson, G. D. (2005). Ecology in global scenarios. Chapter 3 in: Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Volume 2: Scenarios Assessment. Island Press, NY.

Sala, O.E., van Vuuren, D., Pereira, H., Lodge, D., Alder, J., Cumming, G.S., Dobson, A. Wolters, V. and Xenopoulos, M.A. (2005). Biodiversity across scenarios. Chapter 10 in: Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Volume 2: Scenarios Assessment. Island Press, NY.

Rodriguez, J.P., Agard, J., Douglas Beard, Jr., T., Bennett, E., Cork, S., Cumming, G.S., Deane, D., Dobson, A.P., Lodge, D.M., Mutale, M. Nelson, G., Peterson, G.D. and Ribeiro, T. (2005). Tradeoffs among ecosystem services. Chapter 11 in: Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Volume 2: Scenarios Assessment. Island Press, NY.

Kareiva, P., Manson, M., Geoghegan, J., Turner II, B.L., Dickinson, R., Kabat, P., Foley, J.,  Defries, R., Rosegrant, M., Ringler, C., Wolters, V., Pereira, H., Sala, O., Lodge, D., Cumming, G.S., Dobson, A.,  Alder, J., Xenopoulos, M., and van Vuuren, D., Carpenter, S., Bennett, E., Parma, A.M., Pascual, M.A., Agard, J., Butler, C., Wilkinson, P. (2005). State of the art in describing future changes in ecosystem services. Chapter 4 in: Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Volume 2: Scenarios Assessment. Island Press, NY.

Cumming, G.S. (2004). The impacts of low-head dams on fish species richness in Wisconsin, USA. Ecological Applications 14: 1495-1506.

Cumming, G.S. (2004). On the relevance of abundance and spatial pattern for interpretations of host-parasite association data. Bulletin of Entomological Research 94: 401-409.

Bennett, E.M., Carpenter, S.R., Peterson, G.D., Cumming, G.S., Zurek, M., and Pingali, P. (2003). Why global scenarios need ecology. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 1: 322-329.

Cumming, D.H.M. & Cumming, G.S. (2003). Ungulate community structure and ecological processes: body size, hoof area and trampling in African savannas. Oecologia 134: 560-568.

Peterson, G.D., Cumming, G.S. & Carpenter, S.R. (2003). Scenario planning: a tool for conservation in an uncertain future. Conservation Biology 17: 358-366.

Peterson, G.D., Beard, T.D. Jr., Beisner, B.E., Bennett, E.M., Carpenter, S.R., Cumming, G.S., Dent, C.L., and Havlicek, T.D. (2003). Assessing future ecosystem services: a case study of the Northern Highlands Lake District, Wisconsin. Conservation Ecology 7(3):1.

Cumming, G.S. and Havlicek, T.D. (2002). Evolution, ecology and multimodal distributions of body size. Ecosystems 5: 705-711.

Walker, B., Carpenter, S., Anderies, J., Abel, N., Cumming, G.S., Janssen, M., Lebel, L., Norberg, J., Peterson, G.D., & Pritchard, R. (2002). Resilience management in social-ecological systems: a working hypothesis for a participatory approach. Conservation Ecology6(1): 14

Dent, C. L., Cumming, G.S., & Carpenter, S.R. (2002). Non-linearities in lake and stream ecosystems. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 357: 635-645.

Cumming, G.S. (2002). Habitat shape, species invasions, and reserve design: insights from simple models. Conservation Ecology 6(1): 3.[Online] URL:http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol6/iss1/art3/

Cumming, G.S. (2002). Comparing climate and vegetation as limiting factors for species ranges of African ticks. Ecology 83: 255-268.

Cumming, G.S. (2000). Using between-model comparisons to fine-tune linear models of species ranges. Journal of Biogeography 27: 441-455.

Cumming, G.S. (2000). Using habitat models to map diversity: pan-African species richness of ticks (Acari: Ixodida). Journal of Biogeography 27: 425-440.

Cumming, G.S. (2000). Host use does not clarify the evolutionary history of African ticks (Acari: Ixodoidea). African Zoology 35: 43-50.

Cumming, G.S. (1999). Host distributions do not limit the species ranges of most African ticks (Acari: Ixodida). Bulletin of Entomological Research 89: 303-327.

Cumming, G.S. (1999). The Evolutionary Ecology of African ticks. D. Phil. Thesis, University of Oxford.

Cumming, G.S. (1998). Host preference in African ticks: a quantitative data set. Bulletin of Entomological Research 88: 379-406.

Fenton, M.B., Cumming, D.H.M., Rautenbach, I.L., Cumming, G.S., Cumming, M.S., Ford, A. G., Taylor, R.D., Dunlop, J.M., Hovorka, M.D., Johnston, D.S., Portfors, C.V.R., Kalcounis, M., & Mahlanga, Z. (1998). Bats and loss of tree canopy in African woodlands. Conservation Biology 12(2):399-407.

Cumming, D.H.M., Fenton, M.B., Rautenbach, I.L., Taylor, R.D., Cumming, G.S., Cumming, M.S., Dunlop, J. M., Ford, A.G., Hovorka, M. D., Johnston, D.S., Kalcounis, M., Mahlanga, Z., & Portfors, C. V. R. (1997). Elephants, woodlands and biodiversity in southern Africa. South African Journal of Science 93: 231-236.

Bernard, R.T.F. & Cumming, G.S. (1997). African bats: evolution of reproductive patterns and delays. Quarterly Review of Biology 72(3): 253-274.

Cumming, G.S. & Bernard, R.T.F. (1997). Rainfall, food abundance and timing of parturition in African bats. Oecologia 111: 309-317.

Cumming, G.S. (1996). Mantis movements by night and the interactions of sympatric bats and mantises. Canadian Journal of Zoology 74: 1771-1774.


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