Systematic conservation planning (SCP) has increasingly been used to prioritize conservation actions, including the design of new protected areas to achieve conservation objectives. Over the last 10 years, the number of marine SCP studies has increased exponentially, yet there is no structured or reliable way to find information on methods, trends, and progress. The rapid growth in methods and marine applications warrants an updated analysis of the literature, as well as reflection on the need for continuous and systematic documentation of SCP exercises in general. To address these gaps, we developed a database to document SCP exercises and populated it with 155 marine SCP exercises found in the primary literature. Based on our review, we provide an update on global advances and trends in marine SCP literature. We found accelerating growth in the number of studies over the past decade, with increasing consideration of socioeconomic variables, land-sea planning, and ecological connectivity. While several studies aimed to inform conservation decisions, we found little evidence of input from practitioners. There are important gaps in geographic coverage and little correspondence with areas most threatened. Five countries lead most studies, but their networks suggest potential for capacity building through collaborations. The varying quality and detail in documentation of studies confirmed the limited opportunities to develop and assess the application of best practice in conservation planning. A global database to track the development, implementation, and impact of SCP applications can thus provide numerous benefits. Our database constitutes an important step towards the development of a centralized repository of information on planning exercises and can serve several roles to advance SCP theory and practice: it facilitates assessing geographic coverage and gaps; scientists and practitioners can access information on trends and statistics in the use of data, methods, and applications; reviewers and editors of journals can assess whether studies have covered important literature and developments; donors and non-government organizations can identify regions needing further work; and practitioners and policy-makers can learn from previous plans.
Jorge is a Research Fellow at the ARC CoE Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University. He is interested in improving spatial planning for natural resource use to achieve long-term sustainability and positive outcomes for people and their environment. Broadly, his research aims to advance systematic conservation planning theory and practice through promoting and improving the integration of terrestrial, freshwater, and marine conservation planning initiatives. Jorge’s research explores theoretical and methodological aspects of decision-making problems associated with an integrated land-sea planning approach. For example, cost-effective mitigation of cross-system threats (e.g. land-based pollution affecting marine and freshwater ecosystems), identifying co-benefits and trade-offs associated with different land/water uses and management decisions (e.g. spatial congruence between local and downstream land values), and improving collaboration among stakeholders with diverse (and sometimes conflicting) objectives across the land-to-sea continuum. His current research includes participatory scenario planning to inform integrated catchment management, studying collaboration networks supporting planning for land-water use and management, and designing reserve networks considering ecological connectivity and the effects of global warming.